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Concerning such [constants] I would like to state a theorem which at present cannot be based upon anything more than upon a faith in the simplicity, i.e., intelligibility of nature: there are no arbitrary constants of this kind; that is to say, nature is so constituted that it is possible logically to lay down such strongly determined laws that within these laws only rationally completely determined constants occur (not constants, therefore, whose numerical value could be changed without destroying the theory).
Albert Einstein

Time's Arrow of Many Directions
Nature's Forces

If expansion is created by the always greater probability toward balance, and if gravity is the counter force to expansion, then what is electromagnetism, the strong, and the weak force? How does each force fit into the probabilities? We might otherwise expect such an explanation to be complex, in consideration of the present state of the known universe, but it is not, because forces evolve through time.

The probabilities evolve as the conditions of a spacetime system changes through time, until forces toward balance and counter forces away from balance are equalized, which means that the magnitude of opposite forces eventually cancel one another. For example, Gravitation and overall expansion will evolve to cancel each others influence, and an evolved Electromagnetism force in our future will become the single active force of nature. Diagram 15 shows how the probabilities equalize for both matter and anti-matter spacetime paths.

If we recognize that forces evolve and we also know that the future goal of spacetime is a zero density balance, then we can understand the objective of nature's forces. We simply entertain the bizarre notion that each force serves a purpose in nature. The most obvious intent is visible within two forces, electromagnetism and the weak force, as well as cosmological expansion, which collectively have an obvious goal. Together they are designed by nature to bring about a future equilibrium.

Studied in this light, expansion clearly reduces the overall positive density of spacetime toward zero density. Increasing balance is also visible within the actions of electromagnetism, yet beyond its present organization of the atomic world, the true task of electromagnetism is to create a future symmetry by evenly distributing all protons and electrons. This inevitable goal makes clear the role of the weak force, which is assigned the job of disassembling all complex particles including neutrons and all the complex atoms above hydrogen, that is, as the strong force weakens.

Gravitation and the strong force are forces which counter the great momentum toward balance and equilibrium. Their overall intent is to recreate the past even though they can never overcome the greater probability for balance. Consequently, gravitation and the strong force effectively perform the essential role of conservation and maintenance. Whether gravity slows the rate of the expanding universe or causes areas of greater density to collapse into stars and galaxies, gravitation recreates or maintains the past. The strong force accomplishes in the micro world what gravity accomplishes in overall space. Its primary responsibility in nature is to maintain positive density in the atomic world. The same relationship between electromagnetism and the weak force exists between gravity and the strong force.

Without counter forces to curtail the natural tendency for nature to create balance, the Big Bang would require its name to be changed, to just Bang. Counter forces are fortunate aspects of nature because they maintain every phenomenon within spacetime. That maintenance of the past extends the life of spacetime, and also works together with equalizing forces to create orderliness and a rising degree of complexity in nature.

Part two: Time's Arrow

It is important to realize that for every sustained movement in spacetime, opposite directions of probability have been canceled. We observe the above forces, but what we do not observe is the battle between all the irregular directions of spacetime. For every step forward into a narrowing future there is an opposing move toward the past. I am reminded of Feynman's description of particles as taking every irregular path, this combined with the phrase, two steps forward, one step back.

Spacetime's time has no inherent direction beyond what the probabilities dictate. The unbalanced probabilities of a spacetime that is more positively dense than negative, guide and create what is to us a forward direction of time. The direction of time is strongest at the Big Bang, but the momentum of that direction continually decreases. It is actually the loss of any one definite direction of time, as spacetime becomes less dense and probabilities equalize, which causes the momentum of spacetime toward balance to slow. We observe that decrease in the momentum of time as a decrease in the rate that the cosmos expands and cools.

Especially as spacetime nears balance within the central body of an infinite set of spatial fields it is pulled in opposing directions. The direction of time weakens. It would not be enough to say that time is pulled toward both the past and future, for there are multiple directions to these oscillations in the momentum of time, including chaotic, disordered and increasingly complex spatial patterns.

The simplest and most direct phenomenon where we observe those oscillations is the creation and annihilation of virtual particles. We could understand virtual particles as created by the pressure between two interconnected but opposite directions of spacetime, but it may be easier to imagine spacetime as a progression of spatial fields and then recognize that balanced probabilities and oscillations in the direction of time predict that we should observe oscillations as particles which form but quickly destroy, returning space to its previous degree of balance, this occurring anywhere in low density space, and particularly at the point of collapse between a positive volume and a negative volume, such as the point we call an electron.

Temporal Oscillations 

If we are imaginative we can even envision the overlay of spatial fields surrounding each momentary state of our present spacetime. Particles travel back and fourth through multiple directions of past and future, so that a build up of the most probable spatial fields create what we observe as the probability density of quantum waves.

Temporal oscillations are responsible for defining the wave, for locking atoms into a stable conditions, and the slow rate of beta decay. All occur because the particles are forced to travel back and forth in time. Unless foreign particles disturb, lets say an electron, and change the position mechanics of where greater or lesser density and symmetry are located, the electron remains trapped in a defined wave.

In a more general view, particles, as well as planets, are trapped and guided by the average rate of cosmological momentum toward balance, a decreasing rate which is determined by the increasing oscillations. In fact, oscillations in the direction of time are fully responsible for the uprising of systematic behavior at every level of the cosmos. The many directions of time build the world we know.

Galaxies, solar systems, atoms and particles all eloquently utilize orbital rotation and spin, because there is an overall rate of density loss and orderliness increase, a rate which corresponds to the overall degree of imbalanced probabilities. The behavior of orbital rotations, planetary or particle spin, all reflect this average rate of change toward balance. This rate is the cosmological measure of decreasing positive density and the rate of increasing orderliness within the spacetime system. 

The same principle applies to the particle itself. The density of a spatial particle is maintained because balanced and conflicting probabilities do not allow the density and order contained in a particle to be given up or increased rapidly. That density loss escapes as energy, as a probability, in order for that measure of density to be recreated.

This description of time oscillation is not unlike Richard Feynman's interpretation of quantum mechanics known as "Sum over histories", where a particle takes every path in imaginary time toward what he described as past and future, and waves from all irregular paths cancel. Except that this model describes spacetime as a direction through spaces.

Complexity in Spacetime

Electromagnetism is the most encompassing force of nature. It involves all particles, it has infinite range, it is the main organizer of matter. But Convergence is the hidden architect behind electromagnetism. Convergence reaches into the past to create the checks and balances of a systematic cosmos.

Matter is divided toward an equal number of electrons to protons, particle types are required to be rigidly identical, and appropriate electromagnetic charges form the necessary relationships between particles. The much smaller but growing electron is matched together with the heavier proton with opposite but equal electromagnetic charges in preparation for the future. A rigid guidance system of conflicting forces then narrows the probability waves of particles in relation to other particles of like charges and especially oppositely charged particles. All of this occurs because of Convergence.

One can sense how spacetime increases in complexity as order, in the form of density, is traded for complex orderliness. The oscillations in time create a system of give and take; a ladder of complexity. Once the polar states model is incorporated into physics and cosmology we will begin predicting just how much complexity will increase in the distant future.

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Copyright © 1996 by Devin Harris