Matter is Space
It has been concluded from Einstein's work that space does not exist separate from mass. Einstein went as far as to say that there is no such thing as empty space. What I propose here concerning space, which I see as a continuation of our evolving understanding of space, is that space is not a property of mass, but rather mass is a property of space. This requires a very interesting switch whereby we see particles as holes in a primary full space rather than material objects as primary to space.
Dirac first conceptualized anti-matter as a hole in space. This is very similar except that it works in either direction. Strikingly, here in this model matter is seen as the absence of substance, rather than the presence of substance. Its difficult to re-normalize after such a switch, but from this perspective what we normally attribute to matter is given to space. If correct, true density is opposite of our normal expectations. From this perspective, a flat space is more dense, more substantively full, than a curved space.
One might ask, why then, when equal but opposite particles collide, such as a positron and electron, is there a conservation event where two photons escape? If the collision returns space to fullness and balance, why is the mass transferred into energy? The reason is because what must be maintained as time evolves is the overall pattern, the measure of order to the pattern, its overall density and definition. Consequently the matter lost, and the return to spatial balance, is recorded as an energy. That energy is a probability for the order to occur in some form, but that same potential can dissipate in time, passing for example between the galaxies, and never again take physical form, as space-time stretches flat. In this case the energy takes the form of space itself.
The genuine existence of flat space is most visible, and we can further understand why its existence was excluded for so long, when we consider that the boundaries of space-time are presently shrinking as expansion accelerates toward flatness. Even though space is stretching outward toward infinite extension, the boundaries of what we normally refer to as the universe; the volume of space-time is decreasing toward zero.
A consequence of accelerating expansion is that the radius of the space-time universe shrinks toward zero since the temporal boundary, the point at which distant objects such as other galaxies are moving away from us at the speed of light, recedes ever closer to our own and every position in space. Eventually, as long as expansion is accelerating, that boundary leads to the extreme where each particle is expanding away from every other particle. At that point, space is stretched perfectly flat, even as space-time collapses.
There are implications to this proposal that we will explore but there is no challenge to Einstein's Relativity theory when stating that mass and density result from space itself, at least not if we recognize spacetime as a progression of spaces, which means that objects do not ever move through space. Objects simply change positions in relation to one another within the flow of spacetime, like a shifting of patterns. In time the universe is still, while in space-time spatial objects shift relative to one another.
What exactly then is density? It is the absence of spatial content. What we define as density, physically, is actually the opposite of what we now expect. Density is less space, what remains when a measure of space is removed from full or flat space. Our density is thus a de-compression in space, either positive or negative.
I am still learning to understand and describe this properly. There is much more to explain. The following was written last year. Some of the principles explained are valid, however, at the time of writing the essay below, I still did not see that ordinary density is not a compression, but more accurately similar to a de-compression or even a vacuum in the full fabric of space.
The Trees of an Infinite Forest (from 1997)
While remembering we are not defining space as it exists within spacetime, think of a box with a divider in the middle. If we move the divider toward one side, and say that all positions within that space remain on that side of the divider. We must say that there are more positions in a lesser volume. In our compression of the space the density has increased on one side, but what has occurred to the other side?
Now imagine a large rectangular piece of rubber. We say that the volume of the rectangle cannot change and then we divide it in half, and at the mid point, we push and so compress the rubber toward one side. Before, when undisturbed and laid flat the rubber had zero tension, but we have now created a positive tension on the compressed side and a negative tension on the stretched side.
However, if we do this to the rectangular block of space, if we begin with flat space having zero density, divide it in the middle and compress half toward one side, we do create a positive density like in the box above. And like the rubber, we also create a negative reaction to the other half of the space, but to our surprise, the reaction is an identical compression at both sides. When we produced a positive compression (density) we inevitably created a negative compression (density). We created density when the space of the rectangle in relation to other objects decreased.
The reason that both sides became dense, and the reason flat space will compress but not stretch or expand is because neutral or zero density space cannot be extended further. Its extension is already infinite. In fact each spatial field is an infinite measure of space, it is just not infinitely extended. The measure of density is inversely proportional to the overall extension (curvature) of a spatial field. Only flat space is infinitely extended.
The above helps to explain why there is no negative mass in nature. If there was a negative mass it would need to be a space stretched beyond zero density, however, then we would necessarily require a form of non-space to divide space. In the same way that non-existence cannot be, a non-space is not possible. Space can only be extended to become flat, and as a rule density requires a decrease in the extension and content of space.
Perhaps the most important principle as we now begin to envision the overall construction of the spatial field itself is how each field is a variation of the one flat infinitely extended space transformed by density into unique patterns. Of all those patterns, the one extreme is flat space. The other extreme is infinite density. There is an infinite set of fields in between, but each field inevitably utilizes the same amount of space. Each positive density creates a negative density in that field. Each field is symmetrical.
What then is the Matter?
Suppose we did actually compress a nearly flat space here within our direction of spacetime. We would observe half of the compressed space as positively charged mass, as protons, but we would observe the other half, the negative density, as point particles, like the electron. The negative density would have mass and a negative charge but it would not be a part of our positive volume. Space would still be the cause of the mass. It would just be from a spatial extension beyond the observed point particle.
There is one spatial condition in which mass has no spatial extension from our perspective within spacetime. The most interesting density field of all is naturally the infinitely dense point. It is quite fascinating because we discover that an infinitely dense point particle, like the one existing at the beginning of spacetime, must be both positively and negatively dense in equal measure. An infinite positive density point inevitably includes an identical infinite negative density, and each of these particles contains half of the overall space contained in a zero density flat spatial field.
Theoretically speaking, an infinite density point consists of three ultimate quark point particles. They are the most elementary particles of existence, the simplest forms which birth all other parts, the something quark and the nothing quark, the positive and negative, separated as always by the non-polar infinity. Again, two halves of the whole of existence.
This primordial seed exemplifies how every point in spacetime has overall symmetry. I have previously treated the density patterns responsible for our half of spacetime, our positive volume, as being individual whole fields in my orientation of spatial field theory. I treated an imbalanced field as a whole field because there is a dividing line, a zero density plane, which divides each half apart from the other.
If we return to the rectangular block of flat space, the two densities that we created by compressing the one side, are necessarily divided apart from one another by a two dimensional plane of zero density. That plane is actually apparent in our positive volume spacetime as the electron point particle. That point serves as a dividing line between our regular positive space and the negative volume of the electron's spatial body and mass. The point we now consider to be the electron, the electron quark, is what I call the Elean plane. The Elean plane is responsible for all electron point particles (quarks).
The great divide between a matter spacetime and an anti-matter spacetime is the Symmetry plane. The symmetry plane divides each fragmented part of nature, and as a point of union reflects nature's requirement that each field be symmetrical. The imbalanced pattern on one side of the symmetry plane is recreated on the other, and each side consists of half the space of the zero density field. The symmetry plane is responsible for all neutral quarks in both positive and negative matter particles. Identical to the Elean plane, on the true anti-matter side of spacetime there is the Proto plane.